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NotaPublicado: Sab Nov 23, 2013 8:25 pm 
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Registrado: Mar Ene 25, 2011 9:59 am
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Coloquios Internacionales sobre Cerebro y Agresión (CICA)
XXXIII CICA Conference
Rome,ITALY
September 22-25, 2011
VIOLENCE IS NOT BIOLOGICALLY DETERMINED


IT IS SCIENTIFICALLY INCORRECT to say that we have inherited a tendency to make war
from our animal ancestors. Although fighting occurs widely throughout animal species, only a
few cases of destructive intra-species fighting between organized groups have ever been reported
among naturally living species, and none of these involve the use of tools designed to be weapons.
Normal predatory feeding upon other species cannot be equated with intra-species violence. Warfare is a peculiarly human phenomenon and does not occur in other animals.

The fact that warfare has changed so radically overtime indicates that it is a product of culture.
Its biological connection is primarily through language which makes possible the co-ordination
of groups, the transmission of technology, and the use of tools. War is biologically possible, but
it is not inevitable, as evidenced by its variation in occurrence and nature over time and space.
There are cultures which have not engaged in war for centuriies, and there are cultures which have
engaged in war frequently at some times and not at others.

IT IS SCIENTIFICALLY INCORRECT to say that war or any other violent behavior genetically programmed into our human nature. While genes are involved at all levels of nervous system
function, they provide a developmental potential that can be actualized only in conjunction
with the ecological and social environment. While individuals vary in their predispositions to be
affected by their experience, it is the interaction between their genetic endowment and conditions of nurturance that determines their personalities. Except for rare pathologies, the genes do not
produce individuals necessarily predisposed to violence. Neither do they determine the opposite.
While genes are co-involved in establishing our behavioral capacities, they do not by themselves
specify the outcome.

IT IS SCIENTIFICALLY INCORRECT to say that in the course of human evolution there
has been a selection for aggressive behavior more than for other kinds of behavior. In all well
studied species, status within the group is achieved by the ability to co-operate and to fulfil
social functions relevant to the structure of that group. ‘Dominance’ involves social bindings and
affiliations; it is not simply a matter of the possession and use of superior physical power, although it does involve aggressive behaviors. Where genetic selection for aggressive behavior has been
artificially instituted in animals, it has rapidly succeeded in producing hyper-aggressive individuals; this indicates that aggression was not maximally selected under natural conditions. When
such experimentally-created hyper-aggressive animals are present in a social group, they either
disrupt its social structure or are driven out. Violence is neither in our evolutionary legacy nor in
our genes.

IT IS SCIENTIFICALLY INCORRECT to say that humans have a ‘violent brain’. While we do
have the neural apparatus to act violently, it is not automatically activated by internal or external
stimuli. Like higher primates and unlike other animals, our higher neural processes filter such
stimuli before they can be acted upon. How we act is shaped by how we have been conditioned
and socialized. There is nothing in our neurophysiology that compels us to react violently.

IT IS SCIENTIFICALLY INCORRECT to say that war is caused by ‘instinct’ or any single
motivation. The emergence of modern warfare has been a journey from the primacy of emotional
and motivational factors, sometimes called ‘instincts’, to the primacy of cognitive factors. Modern
war involves institutional use of personal characteristics such as obedience, suggestibility, and idealism, social skills such as language, and rational considerations such as cost-calculation, planning,
and information processing. The technology of modern war has exaggerated traits associated with
violence both in the training of actual combatants and in the preparation of support for war in
the general population. As a result of this exaggeration, such traits are often mistaken to be the
causes rather than the consequences of the process.

CONCLUSION
We conclude that biology does not condemn humanity to war, and that humanity can be freed
from the bondage of biological pessimism and empowered with confidence to undertake the
transformative tasks needed in this International Year of Peace and in the years to come. Although
these tasks are mainly institutional and collective, they also rest upon the consciousness of individual participants for whom pessimism and optimism are crucial factors. Just as ‘wars begin in the
minds of men’, peace also begins in our minds. The same species who invented war is capable of
inventing peace. The responsibility lies with each of us.




Book of abstracts: VIOLENCE IS NOT BIOLOGICALLY DETERMINED

http://eprints.ucm.es/13354/1/XXXIII_CI ... _abstracts.

_________________
"Lo único constante es el cambio" Heráclito

"Todo el que no reflexiona y se deja llevar por el hábito, es de tendencia optimista; en conjunto, el pueblo ignorante (...) es rutinario, el mal más grave, a sus ojos, es la variación" Jean Marie Guyau


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NotaPublicado: Lun Nov 25, 2013 1:51 pm 
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Registrado: Sab Ene 12, 2013 6:55 pm
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Nacionalidad: Argentina
Provincia: Buenos Aires
Me tira error "404" revisa el link al paper.


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NotaPublicado: Dom Jun 01, 2014 3:50 pm 
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Registrado: Mar Ene 25, 2011 9:59 am
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Nacionalidad: Argentina
Provincia: Santa Fe
Fijate si este funciona:

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/s ... tracts.pdf

_________________
"Lo único constante es el cambio" Heráclito

"Todo el que no reflexiona y se deja llevar por el hábito, es de tendencia optimista; en conjunto, el pueblo ignorante (...) es rutinario, el mal más grave, a sus ojos, es la variación" Jean Marie Guyau


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