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NotaPublicado: Mié Nov 20, 2013 6:28 am 
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Registrado: Sab Ene 12, 2013 6:55 pm
Mensajes: 36
Nacionalidad: Argentina
Provincia: Buenos Aires
The Evolution of Cooperation in Primate Groups

Joan B. Silk
Department of Anthropology
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, CA 90095


Primates don’t donate to NPR or give blood. But they do perform a variety of
behaviors that are thought to be altruistic. That is, they act in ways that reduce their own
fitness, but increase the fitness of their partners. For example, male chimpanzees form
alliances and patrol the borders of their territories, sometimes launching lethal attacks on
members of other communities (Goodall et al. 1979; Nishida et al. 1985; Boesch and
Boesch-Achermann 2000; Watts and Mitani in preparation); vervet monkeys give alarm
calls when they detect predators (Struhsaker 1967; Seyfarth et al. 1980); captive cebus
monkeys and chimpanzees allow others to share their food (de Waal 1997a, 1997b,
2000); macaque females defend juveniles from harassment by other group members
(Chapais 1992); langurs and howlers spend considerable amounts of time carrying other
females’ infants (Paul 1999); and monkeys in a number of species spend 10-20% of their
waking hours removing dirt, debris, and ectoparasites from the hair and skin of other
group members (Dunbar 1991).
Over the last 25 years, primatologists have collected large quantities of
information about the distribution of these charitable activities. Evolutionary theory
predicts that altruism will occur when benefits increase the actor’s own inclusive fitness
(Hamilton 1964) or when benefits are exchanged by reciprocating partners (Trivers 1971;
Axelrod and Hamilton 1981). Thus, examinations of kinship and reciprocity, have
dominated efforts to account for the distribution of altruistic behavior among primates
(Gouzoules and Gouzoules 1987; Dugatkin 1997; Silk 1987, 2001). Data that do not
conform to predictions derived from these models have been discounted, denied, or
simply ignored because they don’t fit into our theoretical paradigms. However, empirical
and theoretical work in experimental economics suggests that humans cooperate when 3
standard evolutionary theory tells us that they shouldn’t. Efforts to develop systematic
explanations of human behavior that explain these anomalies have generated new models
of the motives that give rise to human cooperation, including strong reciprocity (Gintis
2000; this volume).

The goal of this paper is to review what we know about the evolutionary forces
that underlie cooperation in primate groups, and to evaluate the possibility that the
motives that give rise to strong reciprocity in humans also produce cooperation in primate
groups. The literature provides very strong evidence that kin selection play a fundamental
role in the lives of nonhuman primates; shaping social organization, dispersal strategies,
dominance hierarchies, and patterning of affiliative interactions. There is reasonably good
evidence of reciprocity and interchange within dyads, but very little systematic evidence
of punishment. Experimental studies indicate that cooperation is contingent on the nature
of previous interactions among partners, but the proximate mechanisms that generate
these contingencies are unknown.

[b]Paper: [/b http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/anthro/faculty/silk/PDF%20Files%20Pubs/Strong%20Reciprocity%20chapter.pdf

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NotaPublicado: Sab Nov 23, 2013 7:59 pm 
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Nacionalidad: Argentina
Provincia: Santa Fe
Genetic differentiation and the evolution of cooperation in chimpanzees and humans

Kevin Langergraber,Grit Schubert, Carolyn Rowney, Richard Wrangham, Zinta Zommers and Linda Vigilant.

Primatology Department, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz, Leipzig 04103, Germany2Department of Anthropology, Boston University, 235 Bay State Road, Boston, MA 02215, USA
Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Peabody Museum, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, The Recanati-Kaplan Centre, Tubney House, Abingdon Road, Tubney, Abingdon OX13 5QL, UK


It has been proposed that human cooperation is unique among animals for its scale and complexity, its altruistic nature and its occurrence among large groups of individuals that are not closely related or are even strangers. One potential solution to this puzzle is that the unique aspects of human cooperation evolved as a result of high levels of lethal competition (i.e. warfare) between genetically differentiated groups. Although between-group migration would seem to make this scenario unlikely, the plausibility of the between-group competition model has recently been supported by analyses using estimates of genetic differentiation derived from contemporary human groups hypothesized to be representative of those that existed during the time period when human cooperation evolved. Here, we examine levels of between-group genetic differentiation in a large sample of contemporary human groups selected to overcome some of the problems with earlier estimates, and compare them with those of chimpanzees. We find that our estimates of between-group genetic differentiation in contemporary humans are lower than those used in previous tests, and not higher than those of chimpanzees. Because levels of between-group competition in contemporary humans and chimpanzees are also similar, these findings suggest that the identification of other factors that differ between chimpanzees and humans may be needed to provide a compelling explanation of why humans, but not chimpanzees, display the unique features of human cooperation.

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/ ... l.pdf+html

"Lo único constante es el cambio" Heráclito

"Todo el que no reflexiona y se deja llevar por el hábito, es de tendencia optimista; en conjunto, el pueblo ignorante (...) es rutinario, el mal más grave, a sus ojos, es la variación" Jean Marie Guyau

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